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铸铜雕塑铸造的工序有哪些?

发布日期: 2020-06-20 来源:http://www.mmyljg.com 点击: 发布人:mianmao

铸铜雕塑是中国传统文化艺术的重要组成部分。铸铜的历史非常悠久,且技术成熟。铸铜的工艺要比锻铜复杂,艺术创作的复原性好,因此适合成为精细作品的材料,很受艺术家的喜爱,尤其人物雕塑更为常见。但其容易氧化,所以要多注意保养。 

Copper sculpture is an important part of Chinese traditional culture and art. Copper casting has a long history and mature technology. The process of casting copper is more complex than forging copper, and the artistic creation has a good recovery. Therefore, it is suitable to be the material of fine works, and it is very popular with artists, especially the figure sculpture. But it is easy to oxidize, so pay more attention to maintenance.
铸铜雕塑流程是需要经过11道复杂严谨的工序制作而成,这些工序中既有传统手工艺的痕迹,也有精密铸造的现代技术精彩所在。
The process of copper casting sculpture needs 11 complex and rigorous processes, which are not only the traces of traditional handicraft, but also the wonderful modern technology of precision casting.
我们在这里向大家介绍的是目前铸造行业更多用到的铸造手法,“失蜡铸造法”亦叫“脱蜡铸铜”。通常的失蜡铸造法工艺简单的概括为如下流程,仅供热爱铸造艺术的朋友们参考。
We are here to introduce to you the most commonly used casting technique in the foundry industry, "lost wax casting method" is also called "dewaxing casting copper". The common lost wax casting process is simply summarized as the following process, only for the reference of friends who love casting art.
工艺流程之一:泥塑(每件产品的前身都需要一个目结土的雕塑原型,雕塑都是经过雕塑师在原创设计稿的基础上反复揣摩、推敲之后进行的再创作,泥塑的造型好坏、神韵的体现与否、意图的表达呈现直接影响今后的产品好坏,所以,我们的雕塑师都是业界中出类拔萃的高手)
One of the technological processes: clay sculpture (the forerunner of each product needs a sculpture prototype with a focus on earth. Sculpture is re created after repeated speculation and deliberation by the sculptor on the basis of the original design draft. The quality of clay sculpture modeling, the embodiment of charm, and the expression of intention directly affect the quality of future products. Therefore, our sculptors are all outstanding in the industry Excellent master)
工艺流程之二:矽胶开模(矽胶,英文名矽利康Silicon,此化学原料通常用作制作模具,精致度高,哪怕发丝粗细都可体现出来)
Process flow 2: silicon rubber mold opening (silicon rubber, English name silicon, this chemical material is usually used to make mold, with high precision, even hair thickness can be reflected)
工艺流程之三:制作树脂原型(聚乙烯,又称波丽Polyethylene。矽胶模具制作完成之后,就可以灌制出雕塑原型的树脂胚体)
Process flow 3: making resin prototype (polyethylene, also known as Polly polyphylene). After the silicone mold is made, the resin embryo of the sculpture prototype can be made.)
工艺流程之四:修整树脂胚体(对胚体表面进行的打磨及肌理效果的处理及调整)
Process flow 4: finishing resin embryo (final grinding of embryo surface and treatment and adjustment of texture effect)
工艺流程之五:再制作矽胶模具(将修整好的树脂胚体再次制作成矽胶模具)
Process flow 5: making silicone mould again (making the finished resin embryo into silicone mould again)
工艺流程之六:制作石蜡原型(再次制作出来的矽胶模具已经很完整及完好了,加热熔化的石蜡被加压射入矽胶模具来制造出一个腊胚,此腊胚乃为将生产产品的真实外形复制品)
Process flow 6: making paraffin prototype (the silicone mould made again is complete and intact. The heated and melted paraffin is injected into the silicone mould under pressure to make a wax embryo, which is the real shape replica of the product)
制壳和模具翻制一样分为两种:一种是小件或着复杂的我们应该选用精密铸造,所谓精密制作就是用精致石英砂一层一层吧制作好的蜡型包起来、然后再用高温把壳里面的石蜡烧净。另一种就是树脂砂箱制作,砂箱制作一般适用于简单的,平面浮雕,大铜钱,铜佛像的背面,等没有多大工艺的光面。
Shell making and mold turning can be divided into two kinds: one is small parts or complex ones. We should choose precision casting. The so-called precision production is to wrap the wax mold made of fine quartz sand layer by layer, and then burn the paraffin inside the shell with high temperature. The other is resin sand box production. Sand box production is generally applicable to simple, plane relief, large copper coins, the back of the bronze Buddha, and so on.
工艺流程之七:石蜡原型修整(从矽胶模具中灌制并剥离出来的石蜡原型,表面残留模具的模线及少许的损坏,所以石蜡原型需要再对照流程三的树脂原型胚体作修整,这是很重要的一环,因此环节会直接影响到产品的造型及表面效果)
Process flow 7: wax prototype repair (the wax prototype poured and peeled from the silicone mold, the mold line remaining on the surface and a little damage, so the wax prototype needs to be repaired against the resin prototype embryo of process 3, which is a very important part, so the link will directly affect the final shape and surface effect of the product)
工艺流程之八:砂模(陶壳)制作(把腊胚数个组成树串,连续多次重复浸入泥浆(或称石浆),外层包埋并除湿干燥,将陶壳制成9mm(5-7层)厚,再将此树串放入高热140-160℃烘箱或高压蒸气锅内溶解腊胚直到成中空陶壳)
Process flow 8: sand mold (ceramic shell) production (several wax germs are made up of tree strings, which are continuously and repeatedly immersed in mud (or stone slurry), the outer layer is embedded and dehumidified for drying, the ceramic shell is made into 9mm (5-7 layers) thick, and then the tree string is put into a high-temperature oven or high-pressure steam pot to dissolve the wax germs until the hollow ceramic shell is formed)
工艺流程之九:铸造(上一道工序的中空陶壳被放入烧结炉依不同金属材料以1000℃-1150℃烧结,将铜液立刻铸入陶壳,冷却后将外层陶壳震破,剥离出来的就是铜质的产品粗胚体)
Process flow 9: Casting (the hollow ceramic shell of the previous process is put into the sintering furnace to be sintered at 1000 ℃ - 1150 ℃ according to different metal materials, the copper liquid is immediately cast into the ceramic shell, the outer ceramic shell is broken after cooling, and the rough embryo of the copper product is stripped out)
工艺流程之十:产品铸件修整及处理(对铸造出来的铜产品作喷砂及清洁,并作切割,研磨、热处理、整形、机加工、抛光等处理)
Process flow 10: product casting finishing and treatment (sandblast and clean the cast copper products, and cut, grind, heat treatment, shaping, machining, polishing and other final treatment)
工艺流程之十一:表面效果处理及保护(在产品表面处理需要的效果,通常有冷作色和热作色之分,具体的作色区分及特点,再做打蜡保护及抛光)
11. Process flow: surface effect treatment and protection (the effect required for product surface treatment usually includes cold color and hot color, specific color distinction and characteristics, and finally wax protection and polishing)

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